Many institutions quote different levels of share of energy from renewable sources. These data often differ even by several percentage points, also in the case of statistics concerning for example the year 2010. The discrepancies between different results describing, one could say, the same phenomenon, may arise from the fact that institutions do not provide full information about the adopted algorithm of calculations. Unfortunately it happens more and more often that the institutions which are publishing or quoting statistical data make statistical and even arithmetic mistakes.
The share of energy from renewable sources presented in percentage terms may be calculated in relation to the primary energy consumed or in relation to the final energy consumption. It is not without significance whether the calculations are made in relation to gross amount (in general, this amount takes into account energy consumption for producers’ generation purposes as well as energy transmission and distribution losses) or net amount (final consumption by end users). It happens very often that shares are presented only for one energy sector, e.g. electrical power industry. Other ambiguities may result from the fact that two terms with different meanings, namely “production” and “consumption”, are used inconsistently. It is of particular significance when dealing with the use of electricity in transport. In such a case, the information about the share of energy presenting energy production will be recognized in electrical power sector, whereas the consumed energy will be recognised in the transport sector. Another important piece of information is which year or which period the calculated amount of share of energy from renewable sources concerns. The consistency is also required in calculations based on issued certificates of origin for electricity from renewable sources. Some certificates of origin (so-called green certificates) for the electricity generated in a given year may be issued, in accordance with the provisions of the Energy Law Act, in the following year. It is also worth remembering that green certificates refer to the sources which are licensed/ registered and connected to the national grid only. And finally, it is also worth to mention the shares calculated based on artificially accepted methodologies, e.g. as in the case of Directive 2009/28/EC. For that reasons, the information about the share of energy from renewable sources should be accompanied by full information about the type of energy it refers to as well as methodology based on which it was calculated.
Considering the EU targets for the share of energy from renewable sources, which were adopted by the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23rd April 2009, the shares quoted recently are often calculated in accordance with the methodology presented in Directive 2009/28/EC.
According to PIGEO, the share of gross consumption of energy from renewable sources (from all sectors) in the gross final consumption of energy reached in 2010 the level of approx. 8%.
This share consists of renewable energy consumption of approx. 60 TWh (approx. 5000 ktoe) with the total gross final consumption of energy of approx. 65 thousand ktoe (approx. 750 TWh). The statistics of previous years showed that in principle, in the last decade, no significant increase in renewable energy share in the gross final consumption of energy was recorded, in contrast to an increase in the share of primary energy in the structure of total use of primary energy contained in carriers and used in power industry.
The main contribution to the achievement of this share in the structure of the final consumption of energy from renewable sources is represented by green heat (renewable energy used in the heating and cooling sector). Almost 90% of renewable energy used in 2010 is green heat. It consists of, first of all, energy produced from solid biomass in sources not connected to the grid/network (approx. 95% of green heat volume). The rest of the green heat energy is generated in grid/network sources based on solid biomass as well as heat pumps and solar collectors which find more and more buyers. When calculating the share of renewable heating and cooling energy consumption in relation to the total gross final consumption of energy in this sector, we will arrive at the share of 12% in 2010.
In the electrical power sector, electricity generated from biomass using the technology of co-combustion with coal is still dominating. In 2010 approx. 50% of green certificates confirming that the electricity was generated from renewable (licensed and registered) sources were issued for electricity from biomass subject to co-combustion with coal. Hydropower industry has still a significant share in electricity production. A considerable growth in the capacities of wind farms may be also noticed. By calculating the share of consumption of electricity from renewable sources in relation to the total gross final consumption of electricity in this sector we will arrive at the share of 7% in 2010.
In the sector of biofuels Poland shows the production of first generation biofuels only, including bioethanol and biodiesel. It should be stressed that in the methodology of the Directive, the biofuels which do not meet the criteria for sustainable development will not be taken into account in calculating the share of renewable energy in the year 2020. By calculating the share of consumption of renewable energy in transport in relation to the total final energy consumption in this sector we will arrive at the share of just under 6% in 2010.
Comparing the share of renewable energy in Poland with other EU countries, one can state that the Polish sector is developing much more slowly than the trend in the whole EU. The statistics on renewable energy production in Poland in the heating and cooling sectors and in the sector of biofuels show that the presently used support instruments fail or they are much weaker than in the case of green electricity, the production of which absorbs more and more available biomass resources – so far the main raw material for the production of heat and fuels in Poland in the sector of renewable energy sources.
To find out more about the statistics of individual renewable sources for 2010 please go to our main page.